References for Working Memory in the Classroom

WM Incorporates Short-Term Memory and Consists of Five Components
Baddeley, A. D. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 4, 829–839.
Bayliss, D. M., Jarrold, C., Baddeley, A. D., & Gunn, D. M. (2005). The relationship between short-term memory and working memory: Complex span made simple? Memory, 13, 414–421.
Cowan, N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87–185.
Dehn, M. J. (2008). Working memory and academic learning: Assessment and intervention. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Oberauer, K., Sub, H.-M., Wilhelm, O., & Wittman, W. W. (2003). The multiple faces of working memory: Storage, processing, supervision, and coordination. Intelligence, 31, 167–193.

WM Capacity and Duration are Very Limited
Barrouillet, P., Gavens, N., Vergauwe, E., Gaillard, V., & Camos, V. (2009). Working memory span development: A time-based resource-sharing model account. Developmental Psychology, 45, 477-490.
Cowan, N. (2005). Working memory capacity. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(1), 19–23.

Too Much Cognitive Load Reduces Learning and Performance
Barrouillet, P., Portrat, S., Camos, V. (2011). On the law relating processing to storage in working memory. Psychological Review, 118, 175-192.
Chen, Z., & Cowan, N. (2009). How verbal memory loads consume attention. Memory and Cognition, 37, 829-836.
de Jong, T. (2010). Cognitive load theory, educational research, and instructional design: Some food for thought. Instructional Science, 38, 105-134.

WM, Executive Functions, and Attention are Related but Different
Alderson, R. M., Rapport, M. D., Hudec, K. L, Sarver, D. E., & Kofler, M. J. (2010). Competing core processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do working memory deficiencies underlie behavioral inhibition deficits? Child Psychology, 38, 497-507.
Baldo, J. V., & Dronkers, N. F. (2006). The role of inferior parietal and inferior frontal cortex in working memory. Neuropsychology, 20, 529–538.
Buehner, M., Mangels, M., Krumm, S., & Ziegler, M. (2005). Are working memory and attention related constructs? Journal of Individual Differences, 26, 121–131.
Hester, R., & Garavan, H. (2005). Working memory and executive function: The influence of content and load on the control of attention. Memory & Cognition, 33, 221–233.

WM Deficits Cause Learning Disabilities
Carmen, D. V. (2012). Working memory deficits in math learning difficulties: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 58, 67-84.
Carretti, B., Borella, E., Cornoldi, C., & De Beni, R. (2009). Role of working memory in explaining the performance of individuals with specific reading comprehension difficulties: A meta-analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 246-251.
Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2001). Working memory deficits in children with special educational needs. British Journal of Special Education, 28, 89–97.
Pickering, S. J., & Gathercole, S. E. (2004). Distinctive working memory profiles in children with special educational needs. Educational Psychology, 24, 393–408.
Swanson, H. L., Howard, C. B., & Saez, L. (2006). Do different components of working memory underlie different subgroups of reading disabilities? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39, 252–269.

WM is Necessary for Academic Learning
Baddeley, A. D. (2003a). Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 189–208.
Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. (2004). Children’s reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 31–42.
Frisco-van den Bos, I., van der Ven, S. H. G., Kroesbergen, E. H., & van Luit, J. E. H. (2013). Working memory and mathematics in primary school children: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 10, 29-44.
Gathercole, S. E., & Alloway, T. P. (2004). Working memory and classroom learning. Dyslexia Review, 15, 4–9.
Geary, D. C. (2011, September 26). Cognitive predictors of achievement growth in mathematics: A 5-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0025510.
Savage, R., Lavers, N., & Pillay, V. (2007). Working memory and reading difficulties: What we know and what we don’t know about the relationship. Educational Psychology Review 19, 185–221.
Seigneuric, A., & Ehrlich, M. (2005). Contribution of working memory capacity to children’s reading comprehension: A longitudinal investigation. Reading and Writing, 18, 617–656.
Swanson, H. L. (2011). Working memory, attention, and mathematical problem solving: A longitudinal study of elementary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 821-837.
Vanderberg, R., & Swanson, H. L. (2007). Which components of working memory are important in the writing process? Reading and Writing, 20, 721-752.

Observing Classroom WM Problems
Dehn, M. J. (2008). Working memory and academic learning: Assessment and intervention. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Risk Factors for WM Impairments
Dehn, M. J. (2010). Long-term memory problems in children and adolescents: Assessment, intervention, and effective instruction. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

WM Interventions
Dehn, M. J. (2011). Helping students remember: Exercises and strategies to strengthen memory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Reducing Cognitive Load
Dehn, M. J. (2014). Supporting and strengthening working memory in the classroom to enhance executive functioning. In S. Goldstein & J. A. Naglieri (Eds.), Handbook of executive functioning (pp. 495-508). New York: Springer.
van Gog, T., Ericsson, K. A., Rikers, R. M., & Paas, F. (2005). Instructional design for advanced learners: Establishing connections between the theoretical frameworks of cognitive load and deliberate practice. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53, 73-81.

A WM Strategy: Rehearsal
Conners, F. A., Rosenquist, C. J., & Taylor, L. A. (2001). Memory training for children with Down syndrome. Down Syndrome: Research and Practice, 7, 25–33.
Dehn, M. J. (2011). Helping students remember: Exercises and strategies to strengthen memory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Gill, C. B., Klecan-Aker, J., Roberts, T., & Fredenburg, K. A. (2003). Following directions: Rehearsal and visualization strategies for children with specific language impairment. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 19, 85-104.

Face-to-Face WM Exercises
Dehn, M. J. (2011). Helping students remember: Exercises and strategies to strengthen memory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Classroom Accommodations and Support
Dehn, M. J. (2014). Interventions for students with memory difficulties. In J. T. Mascolo, V. C. Alfonso, & D. P. Flanagan (Eds.), Essentials of planning, selecting, and tailoring interventions for unique learners (pp. 357-386). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

WM Training Impact on the Brain
Buschkuehl, M., Jaeggi, S. M., & Jonides, J. (2012). Neuronal effects following working memory training. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, S167-S179.
Tageuchi, H., Sekiguchi, A., Taki, Y., Yokoyama, S., Yomogida, Y., Komuro, N., . . . Kawashima, R. (2010). Training of working memory impacts structural connectivity. The Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 3297-3303.

Internet-Based Training for WM
Dunning, D. L., Holmes, J., & Gathercole, S. E. (2013). Does working memory training lead to generalized improvements in children with low working memory? A randomized controlled trial. Developmental Science, 16, 915-925.
Gray, S. A., Chaban, P., Martinussen, R., Goldberg, R., Gotlieb, H., Kronitz, R., …. Tannock, R. (2012). Effects of computerized working memory training program on working memory, attention, and academics in adolescents with severe LD and comorbid ADHD: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 1277-1284.
Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E., & Dunning, D. L. (2009). Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement of poor working memory in children. Developmental Science, 12, F9-F15.
Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improved fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Doi: 10.1073/pnas.0801268105
Klingberg, T. (2010). Training and plasticity of working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 317-324.